[Landmark Judgement] Deepak Gaba V. State of U.P. (2023)

Landmark Judgment Law Insider (1)

Published on: 18 September 2023 at 09:30 IST

Court: Supreme Court of India

Citation: Deepak Gaba V. State of U.P. (2023)

Honourable Supreme Court of India has held that Summoning Order under Section 204 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 must be passed when the complainant discloses the offence, and when there is material that supports and constitutes essential ingredients of the offence. It is held that when the violation of law alleged is clearly debatable and doubtful, either on account of paucity and lack of clarity of facts, or on application of law to the facts, the Magistrate must ensure clarification of the ambiguities.

Summoning without appreciation of the legal provisions and their application to the facts may result in an innocent being summoned to stand the prosecution/trial. Initiation of prosecution and summoning of the accused to stand trial, apart from monetary loss, sacrifice of time, and effort to prepare a defence, also causes humiliation and disrepute in the society.

29. In Thermax, it was pointed out that the court should be watchful of the difference between civil and criminal wrongs, though there can be situations where the allegations may constitute both civil and criminal wrongs. The court must cautiously examine the facts to ascertain whether they only constitute a civil wrong, as the ingredients of criminal wrong are missing. A conscious application of the said aspects is required by the Magistrate, as a summoning order has grave consequences of setting criminal proceedings in motion.

30. Even though at the stage of issuing process to the accused the Magistrate is not required to record detailed reasons, there should be adequate evidence on record to set the criminal proceedings into motion. The requirement of Section 204 of the Code is that the Magistrate should carefully scrutinise the evidence brought on record. He/She may even put questions to complainant and his/her witnesses when examined under Section 200 of the Code to elicit answers to find out the truth about the allegations. Only upon being satisfied that there is sufficient ground for summoning the accused to stand the trial, summons should be issued.

Drafted By Abhijit Mishra

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