Pesonal Data Cyber Protection Law Insider

By Yukti Goel

Edited by: Bharti Verma, Associate Editor at Law Insider

Published on: 25 September 2023 at 10:30 IST

In today’s digital age, children are growing up in a world where technology is an integral part of their lives, from smartphones to online education platforms, their digital footprint begins at a young age. However, this convenience also raises concerns about the privacy and security of children’s data privacy.

This article provides a comprehensive global overview of the crucial regulations existing to address these concerns as governments worldwide have enacted various children’s data privacy laws.

Understanding Children’s Data Privacy

It’s crucial to comprehend the idea of children’s data privacy before getting into the intricacies of international regulations.

Understanding children’s data privacy is essential in today’s digital age, as children are increasingly using online services and platforms from a young age.

Data privacy for children refers to the protection of personal information and data belonging to individuals under the age of 18.

Here’s a deeper look as why it is important to protect children’s data privacy:

1. Vulnerability: Children are more vulnerable than adults when it comes to understanding the implications of sharing personal information online. They may not fully comprehend the consequences of their actions, making them easy targets for data collection and exploitation.

2. Legal requirements: Many countries have enacted laws and regulations specifically designed to protect children’s online privacy. For example, in the United States, the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA) requires online services that collect personal information from children under 13 to obtain parental consent and establish stringent privacy practices.

3. Trust and safety: Ensuring children’s data privacy is crucial for building trust among parents and guardians. They need to feel confident that the online services their children use will safeguard their personal information and keep them safe from potential risks.

4. Online risks: Children can face various online risks, such as cyberbullying, identity theft, exposure to inappropriate content, and grooming by predators. Protecting their personal data is one way to mitigate these risks.

5. Ethical considerations: Respecting children’s data privacy is an ethical imperative. Collecting, sharing, or selling their personal information without proper consent is a breach of trust and can lead to severe consequences.

6. Long-term implications: Data collected from children can have long-term consequences. This information can be used to build profiles, target them with ads, and influence their behavior even into adulthood. Ensuring privacy at a young age can protect them from such manipulation.

7. Educational use: Many educational platforms and services gather data on children’s learning habits and progress. While this data can be valuable for improving educational experiences, it must be handled with care to protect the privacy of the children involved.

8. Parental control: Parents and guardians have a responsibility to monitor and protect their children’s online activities, but they rely on platforms to implement privacy protections. When children’s data privacy is respected, parents can better fulfill their role.

9. Reputation and brand trust: Companies that prioritize children’s data privacy not only comply with legal requirements but also build trust and a positive reputation among customers. This can lead to increased user engagement and loyalty.

10. Future implications: The digital landscape is continuously evolving. Protecting children’s data privacy today sets a precedent for how data should be handled in the future, contributing to a more privacy-conscious society.

In summary, understanding and ensuring children’s data privacy is of paramount importance to protect their well-being, instill trust in online services, and uphold ethical standards. It requires a collaborative effort from parents, guardians, educators, policymakers, and technology companies to create a safe and responsible online environment for children.

Data protection Laws Worldwide

Children’s data protection laws, also known as child-specific data privacy regulations, vary from country to country. These laws are designed to safeguard the personal information of children and ensure that their data is handled responsibly when collected or processed by organizations, particularly online services.

Here’s a global overview of children’s data protection laws:

COPPA (Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act): United State

In an increasingly digital world, where children are growing up with smartphones, tablets, and computers as constant companions, the protection of their online privacy is paramount. The Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA) is a crucial piece of legislation in the United States that has been safeguarding the digital rights of young online explorers since its enactment in 1998 and subsequent revision in 2013. Its primary objective is to shield children under the age of 13 from the potential hazards of online data collection.

COPPA’s significance stems from its robust framework, which places stringent requirements on websites and online services catering to young users. One of its key provisions necessitates obtaining verifiable parental consent before collecting any personal information from a child. This means that websites and apps must confirm a parent’s identity and consent before gathering any data from children, ensuring that parents remain actively involved in their child’s online activities.

Transparency is another pillar of COPPA. The law mandates that websites and online services must provide clear and easily accessible privacy policies. These policies should outline what data is being collected, how it will be used, and whether it will be shared with third parties. This transparency empowers parents to make informed decisions about their child’s online interactions and ensures they can confidently navigate the digital landscape.

COPPA’s enduring significance lies in its unwavering commitment to safeguarding the privacy of young online explorers. By setting these stringent standards, it enables children to explore the digital realm with confidence and security. It sends a clear message to online platforms that the privacy of children is non-negotiable, helping to create a safer and more responsible online environment for the youngest members of society.

Europe’s Guardians of Data Privacy: GDPR and ePrivacy Directives

While COPPA sets the standard for children’s online privacy protection in the United States, Europe has also taken significant steps to safeguard the digital rights of its youth through the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and the ePrivacy Directive.

GDPR, implemented in 2018, is a comprehensive framework governing the processing of personal data. While not exclusively focused on children, it significantly bolsters their data privacy. GDPR enforces stringent rules, such as obtaining parental consent for children under 16 (although member states can lower this to 13). It empowers individuals to control their personal data, ensuring that young users can enjoy the digital world with greater confidence.

The ePrivacy Directive, which complements GDPR, addresses electronic communications. It ensures the confidentiality of children’s online activities, including email and messaging services. By safeguarding the privacy of electronic communications, this directive further fortifies the digital sanctity of Europe’s young inhabitants.

Together, GDPR and the ePrivacy Directive establish Europe as a vanguard in children’s data privacy, offering a robust regulatory framework to secure the digital future of its youth. These regulations ensure that children’s personal data is treated with the utmost care and respect in the online world, setting a high bar for the protection of young online explorers.

Asia: Japan and China

In Asia, both Japan and China have recognized the importance of implementing data privacy laws with a specific focus on children’s protection. Japan’s Act on the Protection of Personal Information includes provisions for the handling of children’s data, emphasizing consent and security measures. This legal framework underscores the commitment to safeguarding children’s online privacy.

In contrast, China’s Personal Information Protection Law, which came into effect in 2021, imposes strict requirements on protecting children’s data, including explicit consent and restrictions on data processing. China’s legislation reflects the global recognition of the need to secure the digital privacy of children and provides a strong foundation for the responsible handling of their data.


In the Indian context, protecting children’s privacy in the digital age presents challenges due to the current legal framework. The Information Technology Act, 2000, and the Information Technology (Reasonable Security Practices and Procedures and Sensitive Personal Data or Information) Rules, 2011 (SPDI rules) require written or electronic consent for collecting sensitive personal data. However, these rules do not clarify how consent can be obtained, and minors (those under 18) cannot provide consent under the Indian Contract Act, 1872. To address this, businesses often structure their terms and privacy notices to imply parental consent, but they may not effectively verify users’ ages or protect children’s interests.

As Digital Personal Data Protection Act, 2023 has been based by Parliament, it’s important to consider the protection of children’s privacy in the context of data privacy discussions. Children, who make up a significant percentage of internet users in India, are increasingly engaging with digital platforms. These platforms go beyond e-learning and gaming to include content creation on social media.

Under the Act, individuals under 18 are considered minors, and data processing entities must meet three conditions regarding children’s data: obtaining “verifiable parental consent,” avoiding harm to children, and refraining from tracking or targeting ads at them. While the prohibition on causing harm and tracking children is accepted, concerns arise regarding age-gating and parental consent.

Requiring all entities to obtain parental consent for individuals under 18 may restrict young adults’ and adolescents’ internet access. In contrast, US law allows children over 13 to use platforms like Facebook and Instagram, and the European Union permits member countries to lower the age of consent to 13 under the General Data Protection Regulation.

International Standards and Frameworks

Beyond individual nations, international standards and frameworks have emerged to address children’s data privacy. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, ratified by most countries globally, includes provisions related to children’s privacy rights. These international agreements set a foundation for the development of national laws, emphasizing the universal importance of protecting the online privacy of young individuals.

Challenges and Controversies

While the implementation of children’s data privacy laws is a crucial step forward, it has not been without its challenges and controversies. Balancing the need for children’s protection with the rapid pace of innovation in educational technology and online services remains a persistent concern. Striking the right balance between protecting children and enabling their access to valuable educational resources is an ongoing challenge for policymakers and educators alike.

Enforcing these laws, especially across borders in an interconnected digital world, presents jurisdictional challenges. Consistency and cooperation among nations are essential to ensure that children’s data remains protected, regardless of where they access online services.

The role of parents and guardians in safeguarding children’s data is also a point of contention. While laws require parental consent, ensuring that parents are adequately informed and engaged in their child’s online activities is a complex issue. Parental involvement is not only a legal requirement but also a fundamental aspect of promoting responsible and safe online behavior among children.

How can challenges be overcomed

To bolster global safeguards for children’s data privacy, several key recommendations should be taken into account. First and foremost, there is a critical need to enhance international cooperation among countries.

This entails collaborating to enforce and harmonize children’s data privacy laws, allowing for seamless information sharing and enabling cross-border investigations when necessary. Such concerted efforts would create a more robust protective framework for children’s digital privacy on a global scale.

Moreover, expanding awareness and education about digital privacy is of paramount importance. It is imperative to promote digital literacy not only among children but also among parents and educators. Equipping individuals with the knowledge and skills to navigate the digital landscape safely is essential to empower them to protect their own data and, equally crucially, their children’s data.

Finally, when looking to the future of children’s data privacy, it is evident that adaptation will be key. As technology continues to evolve, so must the laws and regulations governing children’s data privacy.

This includes refining consent processes to align with emerging technologies and addressing the ever-evolving threats to children’s digital privacy. By remaining agile and proactive in the face of these challenges, we can ensure a more secure and private digital environment for the youngest members of our society.


The protection of children’s online privacy is a global imperative. COPPA in the United States, GDPR and the ePrivacy Directive in Europe, and similar regulations in Asia set important benchmarks for safeguarding young online explorers.

These laws, along with international standards, serve as critical tools to ensure that children can explore the digital world with confidence, security, and respect for their privacy rights. Nevertheless, the challenges of striking the right balance between protection and innovation and ensuring consistent enforcement underscore the need for continued vigilance and collaboration in the realm of children’s data privacy.

Also Read: Child Protection Policies and Laws in India – Law Insider India

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