Law Insider India

Legal News, Current Trends and Legal Insight | Supreme Court of India and High Courts

Privacy Invasion at OYO: Steps to Take When Private Pictures Are Captured in India

12 min read

By Tanushree Dubey

Published on: November 11, 2023 at 00:45 IST

In the age of technology, privacy invasion has become an increasingly prevalent concern. One area where this issue has come to the forefront is the hospitality industry, with various reports of privacy violations at popular hotel and lodging platforms like OYO Rooms. This article is about the steps to take when private pictures are captured without consent and the relevant Indian legal provisions under the Indian Penal Code (IPC) and the Information Technology Act.

Understanding Privacy Invasion

Privacy invasion can take many forms, from hidden cameras in hotel rooms to unauthorized access to personal data. In the context of OYO Rooms and similar accommodations, privacy invasion often involves the unauthorized capture of private pictures or videos in guest rooms, leaving individuals feeling violated and unsafe.

What consumer rights do hotel guests have?

Hotel guests are entitled to various customer rights, with a primary focus on safeguarding their privacy and ensuring a comfortable and secure stay. The core duty of hotels is to protect the privacy of their guests, a commitment that extends to several key aspects:

  • Respect for Room Privacy: Upholding the privacy of a guest’s room is of paramount importance. Guests have the right to enjoy their accommodations without any disruptions, unwarranted intrusions, or interference from hotel staff. It is the responsibility of hotels or OYO to ensure that the guest’s personal time and intimacy are respected.
  • Discretion of Hotel Staff: One of the most critical elements in preserving guest privacy is the conduct of hotel staff. Staff members have access to various guest information, including files, data, and room access. To prevent any breach of a guest’s privacy, it is imperative to closely regulate staff behaviour. This includes carefully controlling staff entry into guest rooms, prohibiting the disclosure of guest data, and maintaining strict confidentiality regarding any information they may encounter or be privy to. Implementing measures such as limited access to personal guest information, password-protected systems, and restrictions on unauthorized personnel is vital in safeguarding guest privacy.
  • Use of False Names: In some cases, guests may request that a hotel register them under a pseudonym or a false name in the hotel’s records. This practice is particularly common among celebrities and individuals seeking anonymity. It is crucial to clarify that while a guest uses a false name on the hotel’s folio, they are still required to provide their actual information and identification upon check-in.
  • Rights Relating to Personal Data: Guests are obliged to provide certain personal information to hotels during their stay. In this regard, some hotels may extend specific rights to their guests concerning their personal data. These rights include the right to access their information, the right to correct inaccuracies, the right to have their data deleted or changed, the right to object to the processing of their data, and the right to impose restrictions on data processing. While these rights are not mandatory but can be claimed by guests if the hotel chooses to offer them.

How to ensure that you are at authentic OYO rooms

Travelling, whether for business or leisure, often involves booking accommodation, and in today’s digital age, online bookings have become the norm. For those looking for budget-friendly and convenient stays, OYO is a familiar name. As with any online booking, ensuring a secure and authentic experience is paramount. It is important to be cautious while booking OYO and to ensure the authenticity of OYO rooms.

  • Use the Official OYO Website or App:

One of the simplest and most reliable ways to book an authentic OYO room is to utilize the official OYO website ( or their mobile app. These platforms are directly managed by OYO, ensuring that the properties listed are legitimate and meet their quality standards.

  • Check for the OYO Logo and Branding:

The official OYO logo and branding, characterized by their distinctive blue and white colour scheme, should be prominently featured on the website or app. Authentic OYO properties take pride in displaying these branding elements, making it easy for you to identify them.

  • Read Reviews and Ratings:

Before finalizing your booking, take some time to read reviews and check the ratings provided by previous guests. These first-hand experiences provide valuable insights into the authenticity and quality of the property. Be cautious when a property lacks reviews or has very few of them.

  • Verify the Property Details:

Carefully review the property’s details, including its location, amenities, and room descriptions. Cross-check this information with what is presented on the official OYO website or app. Any inconsistencies should raise a question.

  • Compare Prices:

Price comparison is a common practice when booking accommodation. Ensure that the room rate you’re considering aligns with the rates listed on the official OYO website or app. A significantly lower price on a third-party website may indicate potential issues.

  • Contact OYO Support:

When in doubt about a property’s authenticity, do not hesitate to contact OYO’s customer support through the official contact details provided on their website or app. They can help you verify the legitimacy of the property and address any concerns or queries you might have.

  • Use Trusted Booking Platforms:

For those who prefer to book through third-party platforms, be sure to select reputable and well-known booking websites or apps that have established partnerships with OYO. These platforms typically have positive reviews and ratings, indicating their reliability.

  • Beware of Unusual Requests:

During the booking process, be vigilant about any unusual or suspicious requests made by the property or its staff. Authentic OYO properties adhere to a standard booking and payment procedure. If you encounter any requests for payments outside the official booking process, exercise caution.

  • Verify the Property Locally:

In the rare event that you have concerns about a property’s authenticity upon arrival, you can verify its legitimacy with the local OYO office. Alternatively, you can call OYO’s customer support for immediate assistance and guidance.

Steps to Take when Private Pictures Are Captured

Privacy invasion, especially when private pictures or videos are captured without consent, is a serious violation of personal rights and can be emotionally distressing. If you find yourself in such a situation while staying at an OYO property or any other accommodation in India, it is crucial to take the following steps to protect your rights and ensure accountability:

  • Document the Evidence:

The moment you suspect that your privacy has been invaded, it is essential to gather evidence. Document any suspicious devices, wires, or potential surveillance equipment that you find in your room. Use your smartphone or camera to take clear pictures or videos of these items. This particular documentation can serve as crucial evidence.

  • Notify the Management:

As soon as you have documented the evidence, inform the management of the accommodation about your concerns. It’s possible that they are also unaware of the situation and would take immediate steps to address the issue. This action can also help create a record of your complaint within the establishment.

  • Involve Law Enforcement:

If there is a reason to believe that a crime has been committed, the next step must be to contact local law enforcement and file a formal complaint. In the context of privacy invasion and capturing private images without consent, the relevant sections of the Indian Penal Code (IPC) and the Information Technology Act (IT Act) that may apply.

Punishment for violating privacy at hotel

Section 354C of the IPC (Voyeurism): This section deals with the act of capturing, publishing, or disseminating images of a person involved in a private act without their consent. Violation of this particular section can lead to legal consequences, including imprisonment and fines.

Section 509 of the IPC (Word, gesture or act intended to insult the modesty of a woman): This section pertains to any act that intrudes upon a woman’s privacy, which includes capturing her images without her consent. Violation of this section can result in legal action.

Section 66E of the Information Technology Act (IT Act): Section 66E of the IT Act is important in cases involving the unauthorized capture and transmission of private images through digital or electronic means. It deals with capturing, publishing, or transmitting the image of a private area of any person without their consent under circumstances that violate their privacy. Violation of this section leads to legal consequences, including imprisonment and fines.

Section 66E of the IT Act reinforces the importance of digital privacy and addresses privacy invasion cases where digital means are involved in capturing and transmitting private images without consent. This comprehensive approach empowers victims to seek legal recourse and ensures that those responsible for such invasions can face legal consequences.

  • Preserve Evidence:

It is crucial not to tamper with any potential evidence, including surveillance equipment, until law enforcement officials have had the opportunity to thoroughly investigate the situation. Preserving evidence in its original state is essential for building a strong legal case and ensuring the responsible parties are held accountable.

  • Seek Legal Advice:

In cases of privacy invasion and cybercrimes, seeking legal advice from an attorney who specializes in this area is highly recommended. A legal expert can guide on the rights and legal actions, including filing a lawsuit against those responsible for the invasion of your privacy.

  • Contact OYO Rooms:

It is important to inform OYO Rooms of the incident and request their cooperation in the investigation. It is their responsibility to ensure the safety and privacy of their guests. By contacting them, you not only make them aware of the issue but also hold them accountable for taking necessary actions to address the situation and prevent such incidents in the future.

Impact on the consumer if MMS get leaked

Experiencing a personal MMS (Multimedia Messaging Service) leak is an incredibly distressing and invasive event that can have profound and far-reaching effects on individuals. The emotional, social, and practical consequences of such incidents are deep and long-lasting.

  • The Immediate Emotional Storm:

A personal MMS leak is often akin to an emotional tsunami. The moment an individual discovers that their most private moments have been laid bare for the world to see, they are swept up in a whirlwind of emotions. Shock, disbelief, embarrassment, humiliation, and vulnerability flood their psyche. The initial impact is immediate and undeniable, leaving individuals to grapple with a tempest of emotions that is both overwhelming and difficult to navigate.

  • Anxiety and Constant Stress:

The fear of exposure and potential retaliation following a personal MMS leak can result in persistent anxiety and stress. The affected individuals find themselves perpetually on edge, their minds consumed by worries about the consequences of the breach. These worries extend beyond the immediate repercussions, as individuals fret about how this incident might affect their personal and professional lives in the long term.

  • Possibility of Depression:

Emotional trauma stemming from a personal MMS leak can cast a dark cloud of depression over those who have experienced it. Feelings of deep sadness, hopelessness, and a profound loss of interest in activities that once brought joy become a part of daily life. The emotional toll exacted by the breach can be debilitating, leading to a persistent sense of desolation.

  • Lonely Isolation:

As shame and the fear of judgment take hold, many individuals who’ve experienced personal MMS leaks may retreat into self-imposed isolation. The emotional turmoil and embarrassment drive them away from social interactions, leading to a sense of loneliness and detachment from friends and family. The very connections that were once a source of support and comfort become casualties of the breach.

  • Distrust and Paranoia:

A lingering consequence of such breaches is the development of distrust and paranoia. Those who have fallen victim to a personal MMS leak may find it challenging to trust others, both in their personal lives and in their digital interactions. The constant fear of future breaches and the violation of their privacy become a shadow that follows them wherever they go.

  • Impact on Relationships:

Personal MMS leaks can have severe impacts on personal relationships. Misunderstandings and conflicts may arise as the breach casts a long shadow over the dynamics with loved ones. Trust, once fractured, is challenging to rebuild, and the emotional wounds may fester.

  • Guilt and Self-Blame:

In the aftermath of a personal MMS leak, some individuals may find themselves caught in a cycle of self-blame and guilt. They may assume responsibility for the breach, even when they were not at fault. This internalized guilt becomes a heavy burden that weighs on their self-esteem and mental well-being.

  • Intrusive Thoughts:

Individuals who have experienced a personal MMS leak often battle with intrusive thoughts related to the incident. These thoughts are relentless, replaying the breach in their minds and imagining the worst-case scenarios. These intrusive thoughts create heightened levels of stress and anxiety, making it challenging to focus on daily life.

  • Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD):

In severe cases, a personal MMS leak can lead to symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Flashbacks, nightmares, and hypervigilance related to the incident may plague the individual. They find themselves trapped in a recurring cycle of trauma, which can disrupt their daily functioning and overall mental well-being.

  • Impact on Self-Esteem:

The breach can have a profound impact on an individual’s self-esteem and self-worth. Feelings of inadequacy and a diminished sense of value become a part of their daily lives. The emotional toll of the leak eats away at their self-confidence.

  • Unhealthy Coping Mechanisms:

Some individuals may resort to unhealthy coping mechanisms in an attempt to manage the emotional pain and distress resulting from the leak. These mechanisms can include substance abuse, self-harm, or other forms of self-destructive behaviour

  • Legal and Ethical Concerns

Privacy invasion incidents may leave guests contemplating their legal rights and seeking justice. The violation of privacy through hidden cameras, in particular, raises legal and ethical questions, potentially resulting in legal actions against the responsible parties.

Relevant Sections Dealing with Privacy Invasion at Oyo

In the digital age, where privacy is paramount, privacy invasion has taken on various forms, often involving the capture and dissemination of personal images without consent. The Indian legal framework has several sections within the Indian Penal Code (IPC) and the Information Technology Act (IT Act) that address these concerns and aim to protect individuals from such privacy infringements.

  • IPC Section 354C (Voyeurism)

Section 354C of the IPC specifically deals with the issue of voyeurism. It contains offences such as unauthorized capture and dissemination of images of a person involved in a private act without their consent. This section offers a legal recourse for individuals who find their personal moments recorded and shared without permission.

  • IPC Section 509 (Insult to the Modesty of a Woman)

Section 509 of the IPC is another relevant provision. This section talks about the actions that are intended to insult the modesty of a woman, and this includes acts that intrude upon a woman’s privacy, such as capturing her images without her consent. This section acknowledges the importance of protecting an individual’s dignity and personal space.

The Role of the Information Technology Act

The Information Technology Act of 2000 (IT Act) plays an important role in addressing the legal aspects of digital voyeurism and privacy invasion in India. This legislation provides a framework for dealing with electronic surveillance and the protection of individual rights, particularly in cases of privacy infringement.

  • IT Act Section 66E (Capturing Private Images Without Consent)

A significant component of the IT Act, Section 66E, specifically addresses the issue of capturing and transmitting images of an individual’s private body parts without their consent. However, the effectiveness of this provision has raised concerns due to its limitations.

  • Toothless Wonder: Section 66E’s Limitations

Section 66E, while serving as a legal avenue, has faced criticism for being a bailable offence with relatively mild penalties. It carries a maximum punishment of three years of imprisonment and a fine of Rs 2 lakh. This leniency has, at times, hindered convictions and emboldened individuals engaged in digital voyeurism, leaving victims with limited legal recourse.

  • IT Act Sections 67 and 67A (Addressing Explicit Content)

The IT Act also addresses the issue of explicit content captured by CCTV cameras. Section 67 applies to the owner of the camera, while Section 67A classifies sexually explicit content as a non-bailable offence, carrying more severe penalties. These provisions are vital for addressing cases where explicit content is involved, ensuring that those responsible are held accountable.

In addition to these legal provisions, it is important to acknowledge that the evolving landscape of digital privacy calls for comprehensive privacy laws and strong enforcement mechanisms. This ensures that individuals’ privacy can be safeguarded against corporations and government agencies using electronic surveillance methods. The debate revolves around striking a balance between security measures and the protection of individual privacy in the digital age. Understanding one’s rights and the available legal remedies is crucial for individuals affected by privacy invasion, providing them with the necessary tools to seek justice and protect their personal privacy.


Privacy breaches, such as those at Oyo, demand immediate attention. It is vitally important that individuals are well-informed about their rights and the significance of preserving evidence when their personal privacy is compromised. This is especially critical in hospitality settings, where privacy is a fundamental expectation. Seeking assistance from law enforcement and management aids in promptly addressing concerns while creating an official record.

Privacy infringements affect both individuals and the reputation of providers like Oyo. In unison, we should prioritise being well-informed, collectively advocating for enhanced privacy protections, supporting legal measures, and raising awareness of privacy rights. Through our combined efforts, we foster a more secure digital landscape where privacy is consistently respected.