[Landmark Judgement] Neeraj Dutta v. State (NCT of Delhi) 2022

Landmark Judgment Law Insider (1)

Published on: 31 December 2022 at 22:39 IST

Court: Supreme Court of India

Citation: Neeraj Dutta v. State (NCT of Delhi) 2022

Honourable Supreme Court of India has held that  “direct” or “original” evidence means that evidence which establishes the existence of a thing or fact either by actual production or by testimony or demonstrable declaration of someone who has himself perceived it, and believed that it established a fact in issue.

Direct evidence proves the existence of a fact in issue without any inference of presumption. On the other hand, “indirect evidence” or “substantial evidence” gives rise to the logical inference that such a fact exists, either conclusively or presumptively.

The effect of substantial evidence under consideration must be such as not to admit more than one solution and must be inconsistent with any explanation that the fact is not proved. By direct or presumptive evidence (circumstantial evidence), one may say that other facts are proved from which, existence of a given fact may be logically inferred.

35. It is well settled that evidence is upon facts pleaded in a case and hence, the principal facts are sometimes the facts in issue. Facts relevant to the issue are evidentiary facts which render probable the existence or non-existence of a fact in issue or some relevant fact.

36. In criminal cases, the facts in issue are constituted in the charge, or acquisition, in cases of warrant or summon cases.

The proof of facts in issue could be oral and documentary evidence. Evidence is the medium through which the court is convinced of the truth or otherwise of the matter under enquiry, i.e., the actual words of witnesses, or documents produced and not the facts which have to be proved by oral and documentary evidence.

Of course, the term evidence is not restricted to only oral and documentary evidence but also to other things like material objects, the demeanour of the witnesses, facts of which judicial notice could be taken, admissions of parties, local inspection made and answers given by the accused to questions put forth by the Magistrate or Judge under Section 313 of the Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC).

Drafted By Abhijit Mishra

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